Footnotes for the English edition 


2 $3.2 billion


4 On Tesla cars features are regularly added via software updates.

An article describing a Gm vs. a Tesla recall:



7  - or if you prefer to get the message through a 14-minute TED-talk:


9 In his book, “Makers”, Chris Anderson, succinctly states how atoms are becoming manifestations of bits, and substrates for processes run by software:

 “In a sense, hardware is mostly software these days, with products becoming little more than intellectual property embodied in commodity materials, whether it’s the code that drives the off-the-shelf chips in gadgets or the 3D design files that drive manufacturing. And the more products become information, the more they can be treated as information, collaboratively created by anyone, shared globally online, remixed and reimagined, given away for free, or, if you choose, held secret. (In short, the reason atoms are the new bits is that they can increasingly be made to act like bits.)”

Chris Anderson, Makers: The New Industrial Revolution, Crown publishing 2014



12 It’s hard to find exact numbers, but in mid-2016 Google was reportedly doing at least 5,5 billion Searches pr. day



15 From an environmental perspective, the word “consumer” is problematic. The consumer belongs in the old linear paradigm of extracting resources and consuming them, by turning them into waste. In a circular economy, resources are not consumed, but merely used and sent on to the next link in the chain.

In contrast, in the circular economy, you use materials for a while, but they are not consumed in the sense that they are left as waste without value. Instead, the materials are passed on to others to use again for yet another purpose. Waste is re-purposed as new materials – like food for a new process. Consumption is merely use.

The circular economy is by necessity participatory and collective. You recognize that no consumption takes place in isolation – we are always interacting as part of a greater context, where everyone and everything is connected and interdependent. Humans influence the other parts of the ecosystem, and they influence us. We depend on all other living things – and the rest of life depends on us.

16 These and many other initial observations about moving towards a we-economy were presented in Charles Leadbeater’s excellent book, We-think. Mass innovation, not mass production.

17 The idea of the long tail was originally coined by Chris Anderson to describe how the value chain is extending by making even very small providers part of the economy.


The case is described in more detail at:

19 Bloomberg largest companies by market capitalization:









28 Independent work, Choice, necessity, and the gig economy (gig-economy hyphenated in body text), report by McKinsey Global Institute, Oct. 2016:

29 As Tim O’Reilly points out, it is likely that we will see a blending of professional and amateurs on the platforms of the sharing economy, similar to the development on YouTube. Initially, YouTube was a site, where anyone could share their videos and most of the content was indeed created by amateurs. Now, as YouTube has become one of main global media outlets, an increasing part of the content is produced by professionals and regular media companies. Likewise, a greater share of the rooms offered on Airbnb could belong to professionals or regular hotels.





One of the authors, Sangeet Paul Choudary, has a very useful blog:




37 This has been very well described by Jeremy Rifkin in his book Zero Marginal Cost Economy.

38 Not all platforms need to be giants. By specializing and targeting accurately, even smaller platforms can gain critical mass as the leading platform in their niche: Airbnb covers all types of travelers, but there is platform for renting rooms that cater to particular audiences: very high end homes, gay travelers, football fans or people who go for nature hikes.

39 According to Financial Times Datawatch:

-  Google had a 62% share of all global searches in March 2105 (

- In 2014, Amazon had a 20% share of all global internet retailing, followed by Alibaba’s 14% share. (

- In the US, Amazon had a 41% share of the book market in 2014 (

40 is a labor platform for software developers and designers, which explicitly will only represent the top 3% of the people they interview. The top talents can offer their services in a global market place and companies will know that they are hiring the best in the world for a task. In that situation, the freelancer is in a very good position to demand a high wage.







47 Tip of the hat to Per Ödling for the example

48 According to a survey conducted in 2014 by the independent research firm Edelman Borland and commissioned by Freelancers Union and Elance-oDesk.

49 Independent work, Choice, necessity, and the gig economy, report by McKinsey Global Institute, Oct. 2016:

50 - and tabel 1.7

51 Polarization and Populism, World Bank ECA economic update Nov. 2016. page 34-36

52 In its annual statistics, the freelance platform Upwork provides an interesting overview of the types of tasks the platform mediates, the number of jobs and where in the world they get done:





57 A 2015 OECD study finds that temporary employees typically earn 40% less than permanent employees for the same number of hours:

OECD 2015, In It Together: Why Less Inequality Benefits All, see section 4.4



60 For at very detailed description of the many ways in which in-equality damages society, see “The spirit level - Why Equality is Better for Everyone”, by Richard Wilkinson and Kate Pickett, Penguin books 2010.

61 Warren Buffet, the second richest person in the US, has pointed out that his secretary pays more taxes than he does.




65 Detailed and up-to-date information about distribution of wealth can be found at the World Wealth and Income Database:


67 Thomas Piketty, Capital in the twenty-first Century, 2014, Harvard University press


69Corporate taxes in the EU28 countries 1996-2015 - graph 17


71 Zucman: The effective rate paid by US corporations has been reduced by 1/3 since late 1990s

72 - figure 7


74 For a well-written, rather disturbing insight in to the nature of high frequency stock trading, check Flash Boys: A Wall Street Revolt by Michael Lewis, 2014, W. W. Norton & Company

75 You can find an interesting of the relative size of different parts of the economy at this site:

BIS, the Bank of International Settlements, keeps track of the number so-called derivatives, that are traded on the financial markets. In 2013, the total was $710 trillion. 

In 2103 the Gross World Product, the sum of all countries’ GDP, was $75 trillion.

Roughly, this indicates that the nominal value of derivatives is ten times greater than the value of the ”real” economy.


77 The Economist has a critical presentation of the concept here:







84 For individuals, the number of working hours has fallen somewhat, but the workforce has grown, because the population has increased, and because many more women have joined the workforce.

85 An Extraordinary Time, The End of the Postwar Boom and the Return of the Ordinary Economy, by Marc Levinson, by Penguin book, 2016

The Rise and Fall of American Growth: The U.S. Standard of Living since the Civil War, by Robert J. Gordon, Princeton university press, 2016


87 The chart builds on work by Anne Flemmert, LEGO educational institute

88 The analogy was described to me in an interview by the robot and AI scientist professor Hans Moravec of Carnegie Mellon University.





93 You can find more information about the High Tech, Low Cost concept at:


95 I have had the pleasure of managing this research project examining frugal innovation:

96 For more on the idea of equity as payment for even small transaction, see Esko Kilpi’s interesting writing:


98 A widespread and enduring example is the Bristol Pound:

99 The New Economic Foundation:


101 Danmarks Statistik, ADAM’s databank.







108 An important forum for discussing how cooperatives could play a greater role in the new economy is the ”platform cooperativism” conference:






114 I have previously written a book on how we are becoming a global organism. It was published back in 2002.

115 An important literary example is the Greek myth of Pygmalion who fell in love with a statue that had become alive.

Daedalus and Icarus has been used since classical texts as symbolic of the ramifications and anxieties of machine-human hybrids.



118 The Stiglitz commission on economic performance and social progress:

119 It has been profitable to lay dedicated fiber networks for trading faster between Chicago and New York, and New York and London.

120 Check the good news at Gapminder, the website of global development statistics started by the late Swedish statistician Hans Rosling:


122 For a hopeful vision of this, I can recommend reading the work of the economist Carlota Perez: